Uzbekistan is the heart of Central Asia, the soul of Central Asia and its spirit.
Like most countries of Central Asia, Uzbekistan is one of the cradles of human civilization. Uzbekistan dates back to the Stone Age and the most ancient information on the nationalities of Central Asia is documented in Avesta-the code of holy hymns of Zoroastrians. The book originates in Khorezm. According to original sources, these lands were inhabited by Soghdians, Bactrians and other nationalities.
During the 4th-5th centuries B.C. a greater part of the Central Asian lands was under the power of the Persian dynasty of Akhenenids. The above mentioned nationalities are described in Persian original sources.
Greek writers mentioned the existence of Marakanda (Samarkand) and Kiropol in Ferghana.
From ancient times, the wealth of the land attracted foreign conquerors.
In the 3rd and 4th centuries B.C. Central Asia was conquered by the Macedonians. Conquest by Alexander the Great had a great effect on the economic and cultural development of the people of the East, West and Central Asia.
Uzbekistan had difficult and contradictory history.
In the middle of the 3rd century B.C. the conquered regions became independent and local dynasties came to power. Bactria, which included the southern parts of Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan became the hub of the Greek-Bactrian empire and later came under control of the Kushan empire.
During the 7th and 8th centuries, Central Asia was conquered by the Arab Khalifat. The Arabs took over these countries under the mission of spreading the new religion- Islam. As a result, their conquest entirely changed the region's way of life. Building constructions arts and science declined under the pressures of war and continued only in the middle of the 9th century.
In the 10th century were forced to withdraw their troops and the Samanids rose to power.
Ismail Samani-the founder of the Samanid dynasty, choke Bukhara for his capital. Architects of the region created their own unique cultural structure-mosques covered by a dome.
The 9th 10th and 11th centuries were the heyday of life in the ancient city centers, such as Bukhara, Samarkand and Termez.
In 1220-1221 Central Asia could not withstand the invasion of Genghiz Khan's army. Many cities, such as Bukhara, Khorezm and Samarkand were destroyed, thousands of people perished.
In the middle of the 14th century with the help of the famous world known conqueror Amir Temur, the local people were freed from the Mongols. Timur began his successful marches to Iraq, India, Turkey and north Africa that led to establishing with the capital in Samarkand.
In the 14th century Uzbek nomadic tribes invaded from the north, conquering the small feudal states of Temur and formed their own state later to be called Uzbekistan. The term" Uzbek" means "master" or "lord" of oneself.
Later on, two large Khanates -Bukhara and Khiva were formed. Isolation decreased and trade and other relations with foreign countries slowed down the economic development of the region. The economics of Central Asia in the past owed to stable relations with China, India and Europe.
In the 2nd century B.C. Caravan trade routes connected South-East, Europe, Irak, Caucasus and Central Asia with Mongolia and China. And it is known as the Great Silk Road passed through the centers of Central Asia, Samarkand, Bukhara, Marghilan, Shakhrisabz and Andijan. Through the trade ties of the Central Asian states with foreign countries, world civilization grew enriched with the scientific and spiritual works of such great thinkers as Ibn Sino(Avicenna), Beruni, Al-Termez, Ferghani, Farabi, Ulughbek, Navoi, Babur, Al-Khorezmi.
Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to its stoteyed history and strategic location. Culture of Uzbekistan is one of the brightest and original cultures of East.
Discover Uzbekistan with DOCA TOURS (Oybek Ostanov)